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PostGaddafi and Philippines (Bienvenido Macario, USA, 02/19/15 6:20 am)
Randy Black wrote on 16 February: "As [Gaddafi] promised, along with the motto 'freedom, socialism and unity,' he also supported the PLO, the IRA, the Polisario Front and implemented 'increased political repression' among his subjects."
Under Muammar Gaddafi, Libya supported both the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF), a Muslim secessionist movement, and the communist rebels in the Philippines. The Mindanao war between the Marcos administration and the MNLF started on March 29, 1969.
In 1976, Imelda Marcos asked Gaddafi to broker a ceasefire. This led to the Tripoli Agreement that includes the creation of the Autonomous Region Muslim Mindanao (ARMM), composed of thirteen provinces of Mindanao. Gaddafi made his book The Green Book: Part One: The Solution to the Problem of Democracy (The Authority of the People) required reading. When I was in the Philippines my friend gave me a copy and asked me to do a book report.
JE comments: Bienvenido Macario and Eugenio Battaglia both have copies of the Green Book. I'd like to know more. Who in WAISworld can walk us through the tenets of the Gaddafi political worldview?
I made this point a few years back, but no name in world history has more competing spellings. This book cover has "Qhadafi." ABC News published a list of 112 variants: http://abcnews.go.com/blogs/headlines/2009/09/how-many-different-ways-can-you-spell-gaddafi/
Gaddafi and the Sandinistas
(Timothy Brown, USA
02/19/15 2:10 PM)
I certainly can't get inside Gaddafi's head. But I can add a couple of things. Gaddafi also supported the FSLN. José "Pepe" Puente León, One of my post-Cold War friends, a second generation Marxist-Leninist, was a personal aide to Fidel Castro prior to Castro's departure for Cuba. He was later was a National Director of the FSLN, managed its main safe house in Mexico City and was liaison between several Central American revolutionary fronts and the Mexico City stations of the KGB and Cuban intelligence. In a videotaped oral history I did, he described his experiences while spending more than a year as a guerrilla warfare training instructor in Libya. You can read part of his story as he told it to me in Chapter Two of my book When the AK-47s Fall Silent--Revolutionaries, Guerrillas and the Dangers of Peace (Hoover 2001).
Puente was trained in Honduras in guerrilla warfare by the late Noel Guerrero Santiago, a founder of Nicaragua's communist party that had worked in the United States prior to WWII as a railroad union organizer under the direction of Earl Browder. Prior to that, Guerrero was the post-Cuba Revolution top confidential aide to Che Guevara on the organization of liberation movements in Latin America.
Don Noel also gave me his oral history, but on the condition that none of it be made public until after his death. He passed away a couple of years ago and you can find the only known published photo of him at page 52 in Diplomarine. Contrary to the official cover story, Guerrero, not Carlos Fonseca, was the first leader of the FSLN. This is confirmed by General Humberto Ortega in his "La Epopeya...," although Fonseca did later become the FSLN leader. By the by, Puente was best man at Carlos Fonseca's December 1965 wedding to María Haydee Terán Navas. (Copies of Fonseca and Terán's blood tests can be seen on page 38 of AK-47s.)
Another Nicaragua Sandinista trained by Guerrero alongside Spent, was Dr. Manuel de Jesús Andara y Ubeda. Andara y Ubeda was later sent to the USSR, where he was trained in Line FA Sabotage for one year before returning to Mexico where, according both to personal letters from Andara y Ubeda and documents in the Mitrokin archives, per Andrew's The Sword and the Shield p. 385, he became the head of a Soviet sabotage sleeper cell located in Ensenada on the US-Mexico border.
Another Marxist friend, Plutarco Hernández, a Costa Rican who was at my 1958 wedding in San José, was later educated at Patrice Lumumba University, trained in guerrilla warfare for one year in Cuba at Campamento Cerro, for an additional six months in North Korea and then spent 14 years as a National Director of the Sandinista Front. His comments are at Chapter Five of AKs. Separately, he described to me in a videotaped interview the role the PLO played in supporting the FSLN's combat operations against Somoza.
Hernández's first cousin, José Eduardo Sancho Castaneda, Comandante Fermán Cienfuegos, was the military commander of El Salvador's Faribundo Martí Front. He made it possible for me to review some of the archives of that front. Those archives confirmed that more than 20% of the FMLN's cadre were trained in Cuba. He separately confirmed that the FSLN's headquarters in Managua after 1979 cooperated closely with several other revolutionary movements, including the PLO and ETA. In fact he was once married to an ETArrista.
I could go on. But, to believe that there were only arrangements of convenience but never organic, operational links between Cold War revolutionary movements and the Soviet Bloc, is to deny the physical evidence in favor of Cold War propaganda tales. Gaddafi was just one of many players in the "game."
JE comments: How reliable a Soviet ally was Gaddafi? I always had the impression that the Kremlin saw him as a loose cannon, but put up with him as he could be useful for "dirty jobs."
(Note to Tim: my copy of Diplomarine is on order!)
- Gaddafi's Green Book in PDF (Massoud Malek, USA 02/19/15 3:27 PM)
Here is link to the Green Book:
Have a good day!
JE comments: This is a useful link, but I wanted somebody else to read it for me and send the highlights! Here's a teaser quote from Chapter 1: "The GREEN BOOK presents the ultimate solution to the problem of the proper instrument of government."
Are you listening, Political Scientists? No one ever accused Gaddafi of modesty.
Gaddafi's Green Book; A Meeting in Mindanao, 1982
(Bienvenido Macario, USA
02/21/15 7:48 AM)
What stands out in reading Gaddafi's The Green Book is his criticism of the democratic elections. He cited as an example a presidential election where you have three candidates getting 40%, 30%, and 30% of the votes. While the candidate who garnered 40% of the total votes is the winner, the genuine majority is in fact represented by votes of the two losing candidates.
Another aspect of the poll he questioned was the plebiscite, referendum or propositions. He wrote that it is not enough for the voters to simply vote "yes" or "no," but they must explain why they are voting for or against an initiative. This should demonstrate how familiar the voters at large are with the very important issues of the day.
From here I thought in the list of candidates and propositions, why not have an option that says: "None of the above"?
Of course during one of the book gatherings where MNLF [Moro National Liberation Front] commanders were present, I dared not criticize Gaddafi's Green Book for fear of starting a new war in Mindanao. That was back in 1982, and I remember meeting a certain Commander "Jimmy" of the MNLF who was around 38 to 40 years old. His real name was Hashim. He was wearing a printed two-tone polo shirt like a Hawaiian shirt.
While it was not in the book, I did mention to Commander "Jimmy" that Gaddafi's favorite US presidents were George Washington and Abraham Lincoln. Gaddafi admired Washington for leading the American revolution. And Abraham Lincoln for declaring martial law and resorting to force to save the union.
JE comments: One can find many holes in democratic elections, but it's bizarre to use that as a justification to do away with them. Interestingly, unrepentant Confederate types in the US tend to cite Lincoln's use of martial law (suspension of habeas corpus) as a reason for disliking him.
I hope Bienvenido Macario will tell us more of his encounters with the MNLF in the early 1980s.
- Gaddafi's Green Book in PDF (Massoud Malek, USA 02/19/15 3:27 PM)