Previous posts in this discussion:
PostVisiting Venezuela in 1970 (Henry Levin, USA, 10/11/19 8:48 am)
I first went to Venezuela in Caracas in 1970. It was a strange place, 12 years removed from the dictator, Pérez Jiménez. Under the Dictator, cars were forbidden to use their horns, so the older cars all had dents on the door on the driver's side from pounding the door by using their shoes to make a fearsome rhythm on the door and damaging the metal.
But, by 1970 you had the other reaction to buy a car with a very loud horn playing La Cucaracha or some other loud and noisy sound creating an impossible cacophony. There were still occasional gunshots from the roof to the street, mostly random, but in some gang neighborhoods. People had a good sense of humor. Subsequent visits took me to Guyana and the Cascadas, very beautiful. The overall situation was optimistic, and Venezuelans had great sense of humor. Incomes were rising, and people ate well. What a change.
JE comments: Gracias, Hank! If I could make one generalization about Latin America cities, it's this: noise. Caracas under Pérez Jiménez must have been eerily quiet. The quietest major city I've visited in recent times is Berlin. This is more from the Germanic sense of order than any prohibition of honking.
Google tells us that Zurich is the world's quietest city. Perhaps, but I've never been.
Calling at Venezuelan Ports, 1955 Onward
(Eugenio Battaglia, Italy
10/12/19 4:00 AM)
Continuing with the topic of Henry Levin's 1970 visit to Venezuela, let me share my distant memories of that country:
During my career at sea, I called at various ports of the proud "Cuna del Libertador" [Cradle of the Liberator]. First at La Guaira and later with tankers at various ports such as Maracaibo, Punta Cardón, Puerto Cabello, etc. As a captain I even obtained the license of Práctico at Maracaibo. The more fascinating trips were the ones going inland, navigating upriver on the Río San Juan and the Río Orinoco. On these two rivers it was a question of luck just not to run aground. On the Río San Juan in order to turn to come back it was necessary to actually go aground on the bank of the river with the bow and then pivot around the bow.
The bottom was mud and vegetation. The first time that I experienced this maneuver I was not very enthusiastic about it.
I always had a very good time with nice people and fantastic chicas. Moreover, I fortunately never went aground save the maneuver on the Río San Juan.
However my first impression was negative: I was a cadet on a passenger ship regularly calling at La Guaira on her way to main South American ports to reach Valparaíso. This ship would "unload," mostly in Venezuela, Italian immigrants from South Italy and many were also refugees from Istria, Fiume and Dalmatia. These poor people had left their homes to remain Italian in other parts of the country, but the new Italy--lay, democratic and antifascist--preferred to send them away in order to avoid problems.
It was in April 1955, and Pérez Jiménez was president. During my first call as cadet, at La Guaira, the seaman in charge of raising the national flags made a "terrible" mistake. He raised the Venezuelan flag on the left arm of the mast instead of the right side. Local authorities became angry and wanted to block the vessel for such a "terrible offense." The apologies of the Captain and the immediate correction of the position of the flag were not sufficient. After a long quarrel, the problem was finally solved with a fine. To be honest the Venezuelans were right but their reaction seemed to me rather exaggerated, probably was the "Pérez Jiménez atmosphere."
As Chief Officer I witnessed another quarrel, and this time it was funny. I was at Punta Cardón and I went to the Captain's Office to see the Captain quarreling with the Immigration/Custom Officers. They were shouting. The problem was the language, in South America, the authorities at ports wanted to speak only in Castellano or Portuguese (better say Brazilian) and my captain did not speak much Castellano. The locals were asking, "¿Cuánto lastre tienes?" (How much ballast do you have?) Unfortunately, as an old captain of cargo ships, the Captain understood "lastre" as slabs and swore that on board there was no lastre at all, which is impossible for a newly arrived tanker, so they were screaming at each other like hell. It was easy for me to solve the question with no problems.
Now I am very sorry about Venezuela's economic /political situation. As everybody knows I do not like "Los Rojos" but at the same time I do not like sanctions and I wish all the best for the Venezuelan people.
JE comments: Eugenio, it must take nerves of steel to beach the front of your ship and pivot around. What could you possibly do if you get stuck? A tow truck won't help much.
I am also moved by your experience of unloading your countrymen and countrywomen in a distant land. For a staunch nationalist, it can only be a demoralizing thing to observe. A curiosity: have you heard of these emigrants (or their children/grandchildren) returning to Italy in large numbers?
Are Italo-Venezuelans Returning?
(Eugenio Battaglia, Italy
10/13/19 5:40 AM)
Thank you, John E, for your nice comment on my post of October 12th. You really got my point.
To answer your question, I have heard that various Italians in Venezuela, including some children and grandchildren of refugees from Istria, Fiume and Dalmatia, have asked to return to Italy and to recover their Italian nationality if lost. Unfortunately the topic is not discussed much. The argument is the "invasion" from the African immigrants.
JE comments: The first wave of "returning" Italians came from Argentina, in the chaotic 1970s and '80s. The rules used to be that you could claim Italian nationality if you had one documented grandparent born in Italy, which probably 50% of Argentines could/can do. It was more complicated to recover Spanish nationality. Eugenio, I'm summarizing a vague memory here. Do you know if Italy's laws are the same at present?
The greatest returnee from Argentina may have been Alejandro de Tomaso, of Formula I and automotive fame, although he (re)settled in Italy (Modena) during the Perón era. The logo of the legendary Pantera featured the national colors of Argentina. See below.
Italy's Laws for Returning Emigrants
(Eugenio Battaglia, Italy
10/14/19 3:57 AM)
Answering John E's question about the recovery of Italian citizenship, the law of "Jus Sanguinis" is still valid.
This law is very old, from 1912. Originally it referred to the descendant of an Italian father. After the new Italian constitution of 31 December 1947, the descendant of an Italian mother can also recover Italian citizenship. The interested person must present the appropriate documentation to the Italian Consulate in his/her present town, in primis the birth certificate of the ancestor provided by the Italian town from which the same ancestor moved abroad. In some cases this may be a problem, as the descendants of a distant ancestor may not exactly be aware of the little village from where he/she was from.
The local Consul must verify that the ancestor never officially renounced Italian citizenship.
Using this law many non-citizen persons of Italian nationality could enter Italy.
After the long-overdue death of Tito and the dissolution of Yugoslavia, many Italians from the East Adriatic areas could enter Italy under this law. The exodus of this population from the East Adriatic areas is the fourth after 1866 (direct order of oppression by the Austrian Emperor Franz Josef), 1919 (after Woodrow Wilson's decision to favor the new Kingdom of the Croats, Slovenians and Serbs), and 1945-'47 (after the Diktat Peace Treaty).
See the study below about returning Argentines:
JE comments: Lots of interesting data in this study. One number that stands out: already in 1991 less than 1% of Argentines were Italian-born. In 1914, one-quarter of the residents of Buenos Aires were born in Italy, and the percentage may have been even higher in 1930.
Eugenio, are Argentine immigrant/"returnees" in Italy received with special affection, or are the locals fed up with immigrants regardless of their provenance--unless, of course, you're the Pope?
- Italy's Laws for Returning Emigrants (Eugenio Battaglia, Italy 10/14/19 3:57 AM)
- Are Italo-Venezuelans Returning? (Eugenio Battaglia, Italy 10/13/19 5:40 AM)